Table 1

Method of analgesia by demographic and obstetric factors

Non-pharmacological

n (%)

Gas

n (%)

Pethidine

n (%)

Epidural

n (%)

General anaesthetic

n (%)

p-value from χ2 test

n = 312

n = 190

n = 292

n = 416

n = 50


Maternal age

0.002

16–19

5 (2)

4 (2)

9 (3)

8 (2)

2 (4)

20–24

28 (9)

17 (9)

54 (18)

45 (11)

3 (6)

25–29

99 (32)

63 (33)

99 (34)

153 (37)

11 (22)

30+

179 (58)

106 (56)

130 (45)

210 (50)

34 (68)

Maternal education

0.32

Up to year 11

61 (20)

43 (23)

63 (22)

74 (18)

10 (20)

Year 12

70 (23)

43 (23)

80 (27)

98 (24)

5 (10)

Trade/certificate/diploma

61 (20)

31 (16)

57 (20)

87 (21)

11 (22)

Degree

118 (38)

73 (38)

92 (32)

155 (37)

24 (48)

Type of birth

<0.0001

Vaginal

306 (98)

183 (96)

262 (90)

116 (28)

0

Instrumental

6 (2)

7 (4)

30 (10)

128 (31)

0

CS with labour

0

0

0

64 (15)

19 (38)

CS no labour

0

0

0

108 (26)

31 (62)

Onset of labour

<0.0001

Spontaneous

258 (83)

148 (78)

201 (69)

162 (39)

11 (22)

Induced

53 (17)

41 (22)

89 (31)

144 (35)

8 (16)

No labour

0

0

0

108 (26)

31 (62)

Parity

<0.0001

No previous births

84 (27)

62 (33)

157 (54)

225 (54)

19 (38)

≥1 previous births

227 (73)

128 (67)

134 (46)

191 (46)

31 (62)

Length of labour1

<0.0001

<2 hours

52 (17)

24 (13)

12 (4)

6 (2)

1 (5)

2–12 hours

224 (72)

144 (76)

200 (68)

142 (47)

11 (58)

12–24 hours

32 (10)

16 (8)

67 (23)

105 (34)

4 (21)

>24 hours

3 (1)

5 (3)

13 (5)

51 (17)

3 (16)


1among women who laboured

Torvaldsen et al. International Breastfeeding Journal 2006 1:24   doi:10.1186/1746-4358-1-24

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