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Open Access Research

Gendered perceptions on infant feeding in Eastern Uganda: continued need for exclusive breastfeeding support

Ingunn MS Engebretsen1*, Karen M Moland2, Jolly Nankunda3, Charles A Karamagi14, Thorkild Tylleskär1 and James K Tumwine3

Author Affiliations

1 Centre for International Health, University of Bergen, Norway

2 Bergen University College, Bergen, Norway

3 Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda

4 Makerere University Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Kampala, Uganda

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International Breastfeeding Journal 2010, 5:13  doi:10.1186/1746-4358-5-13

Published: 26 October 2010

Abstract

Background

In resource-poor settings, HIV positive mothers are recommended to choose between 'Exclusive breastfeeding' (EBF) or 'Exclusive replacement feeding' (ERF). Acceptability, Feasibility, Affordability, Sustainability and Safety (AFASS) has been the World Health Organization (WHO)'s a priori criteria for ERF the last ten years. 'AFASS' has become a mere acronym among many workers in the field of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, PMTCT. Thereby, non-breastfeeding has been suggested irrespective of social norms. EBF for the first half of infancy is associated with huge health benefits for children in areas where infant mortality is high. But, even if EBF has been recommended for a decade, few mothers are practicing it. We set out to understand fathers' and mothers' infant feeding perceptions and the degree to which EBF and ERF were 'AFASS.'

Methods

Eight focus groups with 81 informants provided information for inductive content analysis. Four groups were held by men among men and four groups by women among women in Mbale District, Eastern Uganda.

Results

Two study questions emerged: How are the different feeding options understood and accepted? And, what are men's and women's responsibilities related to infant feeding? A mother's commitment to breastfeed and the husband's commitment to provide for the family came out strongly. Not breastfeeding a newborn was seen as dangerous and as unacceptable, except in cases of maternal illness. Men argued that not breastfeeding could entail sanctions by kin or in court. But, in general, both men and women regarded EBF as 'not enough' or even 'harmful.' Among men, not giving supplements to breast milk was associated with poverty and men's failure as providers. Women emphasised lack of time, exhaustion, poverty and hunger as factors for limited breast milk production. Although women had attended antenatal teaching they expressed a need to know more. Most men felt left out from health education.

Conclusion

Breastfeeding was the expected way to feed the baby, but even with existing knowledge among mothers, EBF was generally perceived as impossible. ERF was overall negatively sanctioned. Greater culture-sensitivity in programs promoting safer infant feeding in general and in HIV-contexts in particular is urgently needed, and male involvement is imperative.

Trial Registration

The study was part of formative studies for the ongoing study PROMISE EBF registered at http://clinicaltrials.gov webcite (NCT00397150).